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Manual of Legal Citation/Books & Non-Periodicals

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Manual of Legal Citation
Table of Contents
Indigo Book.png
Foreword and Introduction
Background Rules
Rule 1. Two Types of Legal Documents
Rule 2. Typeface Standards
Rule 3. In-Text Citations
Rule 4. Signals
Rule 5. Capitalization Rules
Rule 6. Signals for Supporting Authority
Rule 7. Signals for Comparison
Rule 8. Signals for Contradictory Authority
Rule 9. Signals for Background Material
Rule 10. Order of Authorities Within Each Signal / Strength of Authority
Rule 11. Full citation
Rule 12. Court & Year
Rule 13. Weight of Authority and Explanatory Parenthetical
Rule 14. History of the Case
Rule 15. Short Form Citation for Cases
Statutes, Rules, Regulations, and Other Legislative & Administrative Materials
Rule 16. Federal Statutes
Rule 17. State Statutes
Rule 18. Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Restatements, and Uniform Acts
Rule 19. Administrative Rules and Regulations
Rule 20. Federal Taxation Materials
Rule 21. Legislative Materials
Rule 22. Short Form Citation of Legislative and Administrative Materials
Rule 23. Sources and Authorities: Constitutions
Court & Litigation Documents
Rule 24. Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Your Case
Rule 25. Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Another Case
Rule 26. Short Form Citation for Court Documents
Rule 27. Capitalization Within the Text of Court Documents and Legal Memoranda
Books & Non-Periodicals
Rule 28. Full Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals
Rule 29. Short Form Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals
Journals, Magazines, & Newspaper Articles
Rule 30. Full Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles
Rule 31. Short Form Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles
Internet Sources
Rule 32. General Principles for Internet Sources
Rule 33. Basic Formula for Internet Sources
Rule 34. Short Form Citations for Internet Sources
Explanatory Parentheticals
Rule 35. General Principles for Explanatory Parentheticals
Rule 36. Order of parentheticals
Rule 37. General Principles for Quotations
Rule 38. Alterations of Quotations
Rule 39. Omissions in Quotations
Rule 40. Special Rules for Block Quotations
Table 1. Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials
Table 2. Federal Administrative and Legislative Materials
Table 3. U.S. States and Other Jurisdictions
Table 4. Required Abbreviations for Services
Table 5. Required Abbreviations for Legislative Documents
Table 6. Required Abbreviations for Treaty Sources
Table 7. Required Abbreviations for Arbitral Reporters
Table 8. Required Abbreviations for Intergovernmental Organizations
Table 9. Required Abbreviations for Court Names
Table 10. Required Abbreviations for Titles of Judges and Officials
Table 11. Required Abbreviations for Case Names In Citations
Table 12. Required Abbreviations for Geographical Terms
Table 13. Required Abbreviations for Document Subdivisions
Table 14. Required Abbreviations for Explanatory Phrases
Table 15. Required Abbreviations for Institutions
Table 16. Required Abbreviations for Publishing Terms
Table 17. Required Abbreviations for Month Names
Table 18. Required Abbreviations for Common Words Used In Periodical Names
Table 19. Table of Citation Guides
Table 20. Tables of Correspondence

R28. Full Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals

A full citation to a book or other non-periodical is made up of the following elements:
  1. Volume number (if there is more than one volume).
  2. Names of the authors, as listed on the publication.
    • For two authors, list in the same order and use an “&.”
    • For more than two authors, use an “et al.” after the first name and stop there. (If you’re bored, feel free to list out all the authors with an “&” before the last.)
    • Use titles that follow an author’s name (Sr.) but not titles that precede them (Hon.)
  3. Italicized title of the publication, capitalized as necessary.
    • For law review articles, use small caps for both the title and author, and do not italicize the title.
  4. The exact page number you are referring to. If you are citing a work organized using sections or paragraphs, use those instead, adding a page number only if helpful.
  5. Year of publication, name of editor or translator (if applicable), edition (if more than one), all in parentheses.
    • If listing an editor or a translator, then follow the name with ed., or trans., respectively. Include that comma before the year of publication.
    • Cite the most recent edition, unless you have a really good (read: substantive) reason for citing older.
  • Marc A. Franklin et al., Mass Media Law Cases and Materials 472 (8th ed. 2011).
  • 1 Melville B. Nimmer & David Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright § 1.01[B][1][a] at 1–14–15 (2011).
  • Gabriel García Márquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude (Gregory Rabassa trans., Harper & Row 2003) (1967).
  • Roger Angell, This Old Man, in The Best American Essays 2015 (Ariel Levy & Robert Atwan eds.,2015).

R29. Short Form Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals

R29.1. Id.

References to books or non-periodical material cited in the immediately preceding citation (when that citation contains only one source) should be followed by “id.
  • Update the page number you’re referring to within that source, as needed.
  • Do not use for internal cross references, or for citing back to a body of collected works when you are really supposed to be citing a single work from that body.

R29.2. supra

Can be used instead of “id.” Supra should include:
  • last name of the author
  • italicize “supra”, but not the comma that follows
  • update the specific page you’re referring to


Full: Id.: Supra
B.F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity 32 (2002). Id. at 21. Skinner, supra, at 21.
3 Melville Nimmer & David Nimmer, Nimmer on Copyright § 12.01 (Rev. ed. 2015) See id. § 14.02. See Nimmer & Nimmer, supra, § 14.02
Graham C. Lilly et al., Principles of Evidence 122 (6th ed. 2012) Id. At 88–103 Lilly, supra, at 90